[Title Page] [List of Genera] Comparison of Drawings] [Regional Keys to Genera] [Descriptions of New Taxa] [Geographical Distribution] [Color Photographs] [Scanning Microphotographs] See also Catalogue of Salticidae [ Title page] List of Genera - names beginning with: A BC DEFG HIJKL MN OPQ RS TUVWXYZ References: Authors beginning with: A BC DEFG HIJKL MN OPQ RS TUVWXYZ Key for ticidae of C Europe ][Simon's 1899-1902 Keys to the Salticid Groups]

Salticidae: Diagnostic Drawings Library
by Jerzy Proszynski 1997

Regional Keys for Identification of Salticidae

Salticidae Genera of Levant
(Israel and Neighboring Countries)
(including Genera expected in that area, but not yet found)

From: J. Proszynski. Salticidae of Levant. Annales zoologici, 2003

Introductory remark. The following genera, mentioned in the key, have not been discovered yet in the Levant, but 
are expected there, due to their general distribution and environmental requirements: Carrhotus, Hyllus, Icius, 
Neon, Pachyballus, Phintella, Saitis, Talavera. 
 Diagnosis. Medium size or small spiders (4-12 mm), recognisable by their unique anterior body end, which is 
broadly truncated, with 2 pairs of eyes on the face (anterior surface): large anterior median eyes (AME), and 
smaller (often by 1/3 or 1/2) anterior lateral eyes (ALE) (see hyperlinked drawings of particular genera). The 
remaining two pairs of eyes (of rows II and III) located on dorso-lateral edges of cephalothorax, delimit a 
quadrangular area between  eyes, called eye field (extending to about half of cephalothorax). Body compact, 
legs short or moderately long. Salticidae move by jumping and walking, usually interrupted frequently by resting 
or ambushing periods; they are active hunters with complex behaviour. About 90 species (including some 
Mediterranean) was found to suck additionally flower nectar o drink water with sugar. Mediterranean and other 
Palaearctic genera spin silky retreats and cocoons, but not catching webs. 
1. Body shape characters  ........................................................................................................ 2
 - Genital organ and other structural characters ................................................................... 11
 - Colour pattern characters - ........................................................... see separate  key (below)
2(1). Peculiar shape and behaviour resembling ants: abdomen constricted, petiolus long, not hidden beneath edge 
of abdomen ................................................................................................................................3 
- Abdomen not constricted, petiolus usually hidden....................................................  5 
3(2). Eye field distinctly elevated above thorax, which is constricted; male chelicerae greatly enlarged, often 
enormous; bulbus round, without protuberance, encircled two or three times by embolus,  seminal receptacle canal 
runs along lateral margin of bulbus, making to the centre of bulbus a characteristic, small, circular loop, extending
 over 1/3 to 1/2 of bulbus. Epigynum with posterior membranous "window", without distinct posterior rim, bisected
by translucent longitudinal channels ...................................................................Myrmarachne 
- Eye field and thorax on the same level; thorax without constriction; male chelicerae not distinctly enlarged .. 4
4(3). Legs I comparable in size with legs II-IV; base of embolus located along anterior half of bulbus; embolus fleshy,
etching parallel to bulbus and extending ahead of it; epigynum sclerotized, oval with indistinct posterior oval 
depression, openings indistinct, spermathecae and channels large and thick walled, arranged longitudinally ............
................................................................................................................................Leptorchestes        
 - Legs I very long (particularly in males); palpal organ with bag-shaped bulbus, broadened posteriorly: embolus 
thin and short, slightly bent, arising from a broad antero-lateral stem (in Levantine species from a cavity on the 
median side of that stem) in apical margin of bulbus; apophysis short, thin, claw-like bent; epigynum is a convex 
plate, with hole, or slit in posterior edge; spermathecae small, arranged transversally.Synageles
5(2). Cephalothorax appears particularly long and low, abdomen long, narrowing posteriorly; legs I longer and/or 
more robust than other legs .......................................................................................................6
- Cephalothorax higher, abdomen not particularly long; legs I not distinctly longer than other legs . 7
6(5). Tibia I swollen, with reduced spines and long trichobothria, a row of stridulatory setae on tubercles under 
lateral eyes; cephalothorax long, low and flat, abdomen elongate oval ................... Pseudicius 
- As above, but abdomen enormously long and thin ...................................................Festucula        
- Tibia I with normal spines, not swollen, without a row of stridulatory setae under lateral eyes ...Mendoza 
7(5).Cephalothorax  broader than abdomen, often swollen laterally.................................    8
 - Cephalothorax not strikingly broader than abdomen ........................................................10
8(5) Cephalothorax almost round, swollen (strikingly to indistinctly) on the level of eyes II-III, eye field on top of 
conical elevation of cephalothorax, thorax sloping ........................................................ Thyene    
-  Cephalothorax distinctly broader near or behind eyes III, eye field flattened, trapezium-shaped 9 
9(7) Cephalothorax        swollen behind eyes III, anterior part of thorax flat or gently sloping  Macaroeris  
       (similar in related genera Dendryphantes and Rhene)
- Cephalothorax broadest at eyes III, eye field trapezium-shaped, flat area of cephalothorax ends abruptly, posterior 
slope steep to almost vertical, eye field distinctly broader posteriorly, legs I are the longest Bianor  
- Like the above, but integument thicker and hardened ................................................. Harmochirus  
- Like the above, but abdomen longer ............................................................................  Modunda
- Like the above, but legs III distinctly the longest ........................................................  Neaetha 
10(7) Thoracic slope begins immediately behind eyes III, usually steep ......................  Plexippoides and Yllenus
 - Cephalothorax in lateral profile rounded, body hairy ................................................   Carrhotus  
 - Thoracal slope begins some distance from eyes III; body appears hairy ..................   Mogrus and Philaeus 
- Flat area extends over half of thorax or more, legs in proportion to body appear long and robust, usually of similar
 length .............................................................................................................................	Plexippus and Menemerus 
- Abdomen broad, in males hardened , tibia I swollen; several separate retrolateral teeth on chelicerae 
("pluridentati") ............................................................................................................   Ballus and Pachyballus
 - Spiders not conforming clearly to any of the above - see characters based on genital organs  11
                                                 Genital organ characters 

11(10) Males .................................................................................................................... 12
 - Females  ........................................................................................................................ 37
12(11) Characters of pedipalpal segments .................................................................... 13 
 - Embolus shape characters ........................................................................................... 16
- Bulbus shape characters ............................................................................................... 23
13(12) Pedipalpal femur straight, not broadened, without distinct protuberance or apophysis (majority of genera) 15
- Pedipalpal femur semicrescent shaped and broad, often with small ventral protuberance 14
- Pedipalpal femur with large horn-like apophysis (either single, bifurcated or trifurcated) Heliophanus sbg. Heliophanus 
14(13) Pedipalpal tibia unusually broad, shorter than broad,; minute hook on patella in some sp. Menemerus
- Pedipalpal tibia of normal width, its length equal to or longer than width, but shorter than cymbium Yllenus 
- Pedipalpal tibia thin and long, longer than cymbium, with long mane of white hairs, retrolateral tooth on 
chelicerae with two cones, fused basally ......................................................................... Hasarius    
15(13) Pedipalpal patella with complicated and large apophysis...................................Heliophanus sbg. Helafricanus 
 - Pedipalpal patella without apophysis ..............................................................................  16
16(15) Embolus originating as thin needle-like process  ..................................................  17
 - Embolus arising as apical fleshy process from the anterior part of bulbus, usually with various
angular protuberances; bulbus opaque, seminal receptacle channels not visible  ,............ Heliophanillus 
                                                                                                                             and some   Heliophanus 
- Embolus originating from a robust, fleshy stem, gradually narrowing, either separated from bulbus by a furrow 
in integument, or fused with it posteriorly, in some cases bulbus covered by harder shield, or membrane originating
 from  stem of embolus .......................................................................................................   32
17(16) Embolus thinner than large fleshy conductor, arising from the same stem, antero-laterally or laterally to 
bulbus; seminal receptacle channel runs along margin of bulbus; tibial apophysis articulating with a groove, or 
process, on postero-lateral wall of cymbium ..................................................................... Yllenus 
 - Embolus not followed by conductor, or only by an inconspicuous and thin conductor  18
18(17) Embolus short, making a coil smaller than bulbus, entirely visible, or hidden between bulbus and cymbium,
 in the latter case only a tip of embolus protruding from under bulbus ............................ 19
- Embolus long, either coiled around the whole bulbus, or straight, or gently bent  ........ 26
19(18) Seminal receptacle channel not visible through tegulum, which is opaque or thick, legs I-II distinctly shorter
 than III-IV ........................................................................................................................   20
- Seminal receptacle channel translucent through semitransparent tegulum  ................    23 
20(19) Two tibial apophyses ............................................................................................   21
 - Single tibial apophysis ....................................................................................................   22
21(20) Tibial apophyses separated by narrow space, slit-like (V-shaped) or rounded (U-shaped), cephalothorax low 
and long, colour pattern usually striped; leg IV distinctly longer than III (by average of 36%) Phlegra
- Apophyses separated by broad, triangular space, ventral apophysis sclerotized, dorsal soft, light coloured, 
cephalothorax higher, dorsally rounded, abdomen broader and shorter; leg IV indistinctly longer than III 
(average 3%) ....................................................................................................................... Aelurillus 

22(20) Apophysis accompanied by a parallel bunch of hard stiff setae, cymbium and tibia with large, hard flattened 
setae; body black with striking stripes, dorsally with large scales, black and white; large species, leg IV almost
equal to III .........................................................................................................................    Langona
- Apophysis not followed by stiff setae ventrally, or hard flattened setae on cymbium, scales much less striking, 
profile of cephalothorax higher and more rounded, coloration cryptic, legs III distinctly longer than IV 
(average 22%) .....................................................................................................................   Rafalus   
23(19) Seminal receptacle channel thin, meandering or making large loops across bulbus. Embolus twisted into
 coil on the surface of bulbus, entirely visible, in some species located inside anterior cavity and then only tip 
visible  ..................................................................................................................................  24
 - Seminal receptacle channel makes irregular loops across the whole bulbus .................  25
24(23)  Embolus makes small coil on ventral surface of oval bulbus, differs from other genera by shiny external
 appearance .........................................................................................................................  Chalcoscirtus 
- As above, but body not shiny ............................................................................................   Euophrys
- As above, recognisable in males by striking row of black setae on metatarsus III, dorsally and ventrally Saitis 
- Coil of embolus surrounds anterior depression in bulbus, or hidden inside it (with only tip protruding), bulbus often 
broadened anteriorly ...........................................................................................................  Pseudeuophrys   
- Embolus makes tight spiral on anterior surface of bulbus, tegulum divided  into two shields; several separate 
retrolateral teeth on chelicerae, body resembling Bianor ..................................................  Ballus 
- Spiral of embolus consists of single coil ...........................................................................  Pachyballus 

25(23) Embolus either makes minute coil anteriorly on bulbus, or in a form of corkscrew or hook atop fleshy stem,
 spider small, general appearance very similar to Euophrys .............................................. Talavera 
- Coil of embolus broad and loose, lateral, with a bunch of spikes, spider small .............  Neon 
 - Embolus long, gently bent, making a very loose coil, runs along depression in cymbium, spider does not resemble
 Euophrys .............................................................................................................................  Macaroeris 
26(18)  Length of embolus equal to 1/2 diameter of the bulbus or less, bent or straight   27
- Embolus approximately equal to diameter of the bulbus or longer, bent or straight ..... 29
- Embolus long, encircles bulbus once (in part)  ................................................................ Pseudicius  
- Embolus encircles entire bulbus two or three times ........................................................  31
27(26) Embolus hair-thin .................................................................................................... 29
- Embolus broader, often  with flattened and split tip. Tibial apophysis arising from broader base, either as a gently 
narrowing process or short truncated cone ending with several minute sharp teeth; embolus pressed closely to
anterior margin of bulbus (in part) ...................................................................................... Evarcha
- Embolus thin but with white fleshy extension, blade like, along its length; tibial apophysis broadly truncated, with 
several prominent teeth along edge .......................................................................................  Hyllus       
- Embolus broad apically, often with split apical end, tibial apophysis a thin process, gently bent  Pellenes   
28(27) Embolus anterior, hair-thin, short; bulbus transversely oval, its anterior edge often flattened Bianor 
                                                                                                                                       Harmochirus and Modunda 
- Embolus arises laterally, short, somewhat thicker; bulbus elongate oval ............... Neaetha
- Embolus tightly encircles anterior edge of oval bulbus and runs along half of its retrolateral part, pressed to its 
edge; tibial apophysis long and complicated ..............................................................  Cyrba 
29(26) Postero-lateral angle of cymbium drawn into long thin apophysis, touching claw-shaped tibial apophysis, 
bulbus round with protuberance, embolus half encircles bulbus ................................ Plexippoides
- Postero-lateral surface of cymbium flattened and articulating with tibial apophysis, may be drawn
 into ventral process, bulbus oval, tibial apophysis blunt, in some species with small process directed dorsally
 ...................................................................................................................................... Mendoza 
 - Postero-lateral surface of cymbium "normal" - without any special flattening, or angular apophysis 30
30(29) Bulbus long, anteriorly oval, posteriorly with large long lateral protuberance, bent under angle; embolus 
encircles bulbus posteriorly, then runs along  its side and extends along anterior elongated tip of cymbium Philaeus 
- Retrolateral end of cymbium normal, basis of embolus broad, deforming round shape of bulbusMogrus
31(26) Bulbus with a tongue-like flap, cephalothorax broader than abdomen, swollen, spider not ant-like Thyene 
 - Bulbus with robust protuberance (in part) ............................................................... Pseudicius 
32(16)  Stem of embolus extends ahead of bulbus ...................................................... 33
- Stem of embolus does not extend ahead of bulbus, or only indistinctly, its prolateral edge is usually drawn medially,
 which gives bulbus broad  appearance anteriorly, often with sclerotized and serrated rim; embolus relatively thin, 
arising diagonally and usually about half of diameter of  bulbus, long and narrowing quickly; posterior end of bulbus
 forming a narrow process ..........................................................................................  Plexippus 
- Embolus long and broad, originating from under tegulum, abdomen with a pair of round white spots Habrocestum   

33(32) Texture of embolus does not differ from its stem; large spider ....................... Menemerus   
- Tip of embolus claw-like, different from texture of the stem ......................................34
34(33) Embolus short, narrow, or with a tip protruding from a sort of sheath; stem of embolus stretching forwards,
 covered by a long narrow shield being the extended and narrowing part of tegulum; bulbus bag-shaped; tibial 
apophysis a long broad plate  ....................................................................................... Salticus   
- Embolus not covered by a shield ...............................................................................  35
35(34) Embolus stretching forwards, the almost straight, short, stem of embolus slightly longer than bulbus, part 
of the latter covered diagonally by membrane; pedipalpal tibia long, with mane of long white hairs, retrolateral 
tooth on chelicerae with two cones, fused basally ........................................................ Hasarius    - Embolus comparable but pedipalpal tibia short, without mane of white hairs;        single retromarginal tooth on chelicerae Icius subinermis
    - Embolus bent, stretching transversely; single retromarginal tooth on chelicerae  36 
       
36(35) Medium size, "hairy" spider, tibia dorsally as long and broad as cymbium; apophysis plate-like, broad, 
truncated  .....................................................................................................................  Carrhotus 
- Small spider, not "hairy", apophysis small, bent  ....................................................   Phintella 
                                                   Females

37(11)  Surface of epigynum not sclerotized, covered by setae ................................... 38 
- Epigynum strongly sclerotized, at least in part .......................................................... 39
38(37) Epigynum shield-like of unique shape (typical for the subfamily Spartaeinae) with sclerotized posterior edge,
 translucent large spherical spermathecae and anterior arches of channels, openings practically invisible, in the
median posterior part of epigynum .............................................................................  Cyrba
- Openings median anterior, visible because of their sclerotized sharp triangular roofs, followed posteriorly by 
broad, contiguous channels, which turn anteriorly at the end of epigynum, and in the mid-length of epigynum pass 
into small, cone-shaped spermathecae .......................................................................  Philaeus
39(37) Surface of epigynum almost flat, smooth, its posterior edge is cut into two bays separating a small medial 
process; copulatory openings hidden under  short copulatory channels running anteriorly into coiled sclerotized 
spermathecae, translucent on epigynum as a pair of dark spots (female of the local species as yet unknown)
......................................................................................................................................  Mendoza
- Epigynum in form of a simple concave sclerotized plate .........................................   40
- Surface of epigynum sculptured ...............................................................................    41
40(39) Epigynum simple, sclerotized oval plate with anterior median openings, translucent  straight channels and 
transverse spermathecae .............................................................................................  Icius   
 - Epigynum simple sclerotized depression with translucent spermathecae appearing as two darker spots; since 
chambers of spermathecae are developed perpendicularly to epigynum, they are poorly visible and look variable
 on microscope slides  .................................................................................................   Hasarius
41(39) Epigynum with a pair of sclerotized pockets  ................................................   42
- Epigynum without sclerotized pockets  ........................................................   43
42(41) Large median depression, sometimes divided by thin ridge or broader septum, accompanied by a pair of 
sclerotized pockets (in part) .......................................................................................   Pseudicius
- Epigynum with anterior groove or a pair of groves of various sizes, usually with a pair of  sclerotized pockets, 
variously located; internal structures complicated, consist of long channels running from lateral indistinct openings
through several bends extending over at least half of epigynum length or longer, spermathecae resembling broader
 portion of the channel; strikingly long channel of the scent pore (in part) ..............  Pseudicius (tamaricis group)
                                                                                                                      also some Evarcha 
43(41) Epigynum with prominent vaginal roof, opening on its ventral surface ........  44
 - Sclerotized vaginal roof hidden beneath the posterior edge (dorsally to epigynum), translucent through the wall 
of epigynum .................................................................................................................  47
- No visible sclerotized vaginal roof ............................................................................  49
44(43) Epigynum with white membranous "window" and prominent vaginal roof in the posterior part of the
 window. Characteristic appearance of epigynum .................................................. Bianor, Harmochirus, Modunda 
- Epigynum without membranous window(s) ............................................................   45
45(44) General plan of epigynum resembles Bianor, however window replaced by a groove  Neaetha   
- Epigynum with two grooves and superficial opening of vagina, but not directly resembling Bianor 46
46(45) Vaginal roof - short anterior swelling surrounded by semilunar groove, copulatory openings on both sides 
of median groove, in a form of diagonal slits, channels broad, large spherical spermathecae  Plexippus 
- Median ridge (ending with vaginal opening located variably: anteriorly to posteriorly) long and prominent, 
separates two sclerotized grooves with transverse copulatory openings; spermatheca a complicated body with
internal convoluted chambers .....................................................................................  Pellenes 
- Epigynum whitish, vaginal roof bell-shaped, indistinctly rising above epigynum, copulatory openings small,
indistinct, close to apical end of roof; simple spermathecae and channels translucent through integument  Yllenus   
    
47(43) Epigynum with prominent anterior sclerotized "wings", diagonal or transverse, copulatory openings near 
junction of "wings"; indistinct, internal structures in a form of compact, spherical body with internal convoluted 
chambers, or a knot of convoluted channels, ..............................................................  Aelurillus
 - Epigynum flat, with large, prominent openings, variably spaced and located, in some species separated by 
median ridge, channels running from openings  anteriorly, spermathecae antero-median, usually bent, with 
internally convoluted, very complicated chambers .....................................................  Phlegra   
- Epigynum flat, with distinct openings postero-medially, channels thin walled, running anteriorly, long, 
bent in S-shape, passing into very small, horn shaped spermathecae with a few, small, internal chambers Rafalus
- Epigynum a variable sclerotized plate with two large depressions, often blocked by waxy secretion, heavily
 sclerotized median channels, as broad as spherical spermathecae  .........................   Menemerus  
- Epigynum a concave sclerotized plate with indistinct openings ...............................   48
48(47) Epigynum a sclerotized depression, elongate oval, with antero-lateral or median openings; spermathecae 
long, channel-shaped and bent, vaginal roof  rudimentary, atypical .........................   Salticus
- Epigynum a sclerotized depression transversally oval with antero-lateral spermathecae (in part) Pellenes  
49(43) Epigynum with membranous "window" or "windows" .................................   50
 - Epigynum sclerotized, with groove(s) or flat surface ..............................................    56
- Epigynum with single, median longitudinal slit, narrow or broadened into concave plate 58
- Epigynum variable from sclerotized to soft, usually with a pair of longitudinal slits, in some species with a pair 
of slits joining into single posterior slit; channels broad, usually membranous, running posteriorly, then bending 
 medially and passing into small sclerotized spermathecae .........................................  Mogrus 
50(49) Membranous window(s) in anterior or median part of epigynum, or at least delimited from posterior end 
of epigynum by a distinct sclerotized  rim ...................................................................    51
- Membranous "window" posterior, delimited by robust posterior rim (which passes into vertical wall) and lateral 
semi-arches, all strongly sclerotized (comparable also in Evarcha jucunda and patagiata)  Langona
- Sclerotized vaginal roof under epigynum small, indistinct. Large transverse oval membranous white "window", 
with translucent dark internal structures, very complicated consisting of large channels running anteriorly and then
 reversing back, passing into two sclerotized chambers connected by soft channels    Habrocestum   
    
51(50) Medium size spiders with single "window" .....................................................    52
 - Medium size or small spiders with a pair of "windows" ..........................................    53
- Small or very small spiders ........................................................................................     54
52(51) Single white membranous "window" small, narrow or square, anterior, with openings hidden at its sides;
 remaining part of epigynum yellow, weakly sclerotized, no pockets; internal structures with coiled membranous 
channels, long scent pore channel ...............................................................................    Thyene 
 - Membranous "window" large, oval or rectangular, in the anterior half of epigynum, sometimes partially divided 
postero-medially but not by vaginal roof ; the posterior half of epigynum strongly sclerotized, with pockets, in 
E. jucunda and E. patagiata well developed posterior vertical wall ...........................   Evarcha
- Membraneous  window" posteriorly with semicircular, broad, sclerotised arches surrounding copulatory openings;
 large specimen (10-12 mm of length) ..........................................................................   Hyllus
53(51) Membranous "windows" extend over the whole length of epigynum, touching its posterior edge, dorsal 
abdominal pattern consist of dispersed irregular dark dots ........................................   Saitis 
 - "Windows" large oval (more than half epigynum length or longer), usually a pair of sclerotized pockets 
(posterior, median or anterior); channels complicated, their anterior part arching close to spermatheca, joining its 
lateral end, either directly or after making a coil(s); spermathecae transverse, accessory glands opening on 
anterior wall of spermathecae; body long, flat (in part) ................................................  Pseudicius (some may be also
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       without membranous "windows") 
 - a pair of oval "windows", spermathecae oval or bag-shaped, in some species constricted into two chambers,
 located posteriorly or laterally to "windows", channels relatively broad, opening at the posterior edge of 
"windows"; small spider .................................................................................................  Pseudeuophrys 
54(51) Single "window", in some species divided by a septum, channels relatively broad, originating on top of 
globular spermathecae; integument of the whole cephalothorax and legs light reflecting (but not abdomen) 
..........................................................................................................................................   Chalcoscirtus 
- Integument not reflecting light .....................................................................................    55
55(54) "Window" partially overlaps spermathecae, channels runs beneath  "window" membrane, in some cases 
coiled, openings in the center of window or at its anterior end .....................................  Euophrys
- Channels very narrow, originating medially from globular spermathecae .................  Talavera 
56(49) Epigynum with two deep anterior grooves, usually with sclerotized black rims    Neon  
 - Grooves posterior, with openings hidden inside median ridge, channels run anteriorly, spermathecae S-shaped 
.............................................................................................................................................  Festucula 
- Epigynum with single depression, sometimes divided by a septum .................................  57
57(56). Depression median, strongly sclerotized (round or transversely oval, sometimes surrounded by an elevated 
rim), sometimes divided by median ridge, or two separate sclerotized depressions; copulatory openings lateral with
simple channels, usually bent, spermathecae small and simple  ................................ Heliophanillus and Heliophanus
- Copulatory openings located anteriorly in a depression,  channels postero-median, chambers complicated 
..............................................................................................................................................  Macaroeris 
58(49)  Epigynum relatively weakly sclerotized, with a prominent anterior pit, surrounded  anteriorly by semilunar 
rim, copulatory openings antero-median, channels broad, running posteriorly, coils posterior Ballus  
- Epigynum resemblig Ballus, but anterior depression divided into two, copulatury openings lateral   Pachyballus
- Pit medially along whole epigynum, spermathecae simple spherical, channels thin, straight, openings 
anterior ....................................................................................................................................   Phintella
- Copulatory openings anterior in a small, lighter coloured depression, followed by a slit delimited by antero-lateral
 ridges; broad channels and elongate spermathecae with internal convoluted chambers ....... Plexippoides  
Simplified key to genera of Salticidae 
- by colour characters         
1. Integument of the whole body in males bald, and light-reflecting like a mirror (in females only cephalothorax 
and appendages shiny, but not abdomen), v. small spiders ..................................................... Chalcoscirtus (cf.  Harmochirus)
- Abdomen covered by black, shiny, light-reflecting scutum; medium-size cursorial spiders  Aelurillus  politiventris group
      																									                                                                                                                                            (also N African Phlegra nitidiventris) 
- Integument not polished and not reflecting light; any reflection is due to scales, or setae, and usually is much 
weaker......................................................................................................................................   2
2(1). Abdomen covered by light-reflecting scales ...................................................................   3
 - Abdomen appears more or less matt and "hairy", if covered by scales then these do not dominate its appearance 7
- Abdomen dark mosaic on lighter background, with or without contrasting  spots or streaks 10 
3(2). Background of abdomen smooth, unicoloured: (black, iridescent blue, violet or green), with or without white 
spots or lines ..............................................................................................................................  4
- Abdomen coloured strikingly bright (pink or yellow) (if red but hairy - see Philaeus ).....   5
- Abdomen silver with darker median streak ........................................................................  Yllenus (in part) Mogrus 
- Abdomen with dark spots or lines on light background .....................................................   6
4(3). Abdomen uniformly dark or with striking median pairs of small white spots  or single or pair of streaks, but 
without diagonal, or transverse lines, except a thin anterior marginal line; legs often yellow, slim spiders with  
narrow cephalothorax, usually small ..................................................................................... Heliophanus        
- As above, with pairs of white spots, but without femoral/patellar apophyses, very small spider Heliophanillus
 - Abdomen black with marginal pairs of small white spots; cephalothorax strikingly broad Bianor and Modunda 
 - Abdomen dark, with pairs of transverse or diagonal white stripes ("zebra spider"), but no median Salticus
 - Abdomen with striking median white line, continuous or broken, sometime with one or two pairs of diagonal 
or transverse white lines marginally and thick anterior line; cephalothorax usually with white spots behind eyes
III and a median white line ....................................................................................................  Pellenes
5(3). Body pink or orange, abdomen posteriorly black with white triangle, cephalothorax narrow  Cyrba
- Body yellow, with dark spots on abdomen in males, cephalothorax swollen at eyes II-III Thyene
6(3). Abdomen elongated with several pairs of submarginal dark brown spots; a row of stridulatory spines on 
tubercles beneath lateral eyes ................................................................................................ Pseudicius
- Thin marginal dark lines on white backgrouns along the whole, enormously elongated abdomen, a row of 
stridulatory spines on tubercles beneath lateral eyes ...........................................................  Festucula 
- Abdomen long, thin, posteriorly pointed, light reflecting, dark brown with thin blackish median line and four 
pairs of small white spots;  only known male  ......................................................................  Mendoza
7(2). Coloration dull greyish with ill defined lighter spots; hairy appearance ....................  Carrhotus   
- Body mainly greyish, with indistinct darker pattern .........................................................  Aelurillus some Phlegra 
                                                                                                                                          and Rafalus  
 - Abdomen light suffused with grey, often with grey median chevrons, small spiders ....... Euophrys
 - Abdomen with pairs of dark diagonal lines on lighter background (sometimes yellow or pink) usually with white
 anterior line (in part) ............................................................................................................  Evarcha         
- Body with contrasting pattern ............................................................................................. 8
8(7). Cephalothorax with a pair of contrasting white stripes on black background, abdomen posteriorly pointed with
 median white stripe, large spider .........................................................................................  Langona
- Cephalothorax with a pair of less contrasting light stripes on dark background, abdomen either with stripes 
, or pairs of indistinct spots on grey background, medium size spiders ...............................  Phlegra
- Abdomen hairy, blackish grey with a pair of white streaks, large spider, females only ...  Philaeus 
- Abdomen with single, median streak or large white spot ...................................................  9
9(8). Abdomen with single median streak, body hairy ..........................................................  10
 - Abdomen black with large white spot anteriorly, male only .............................................. Evarcha nepos  
- Body does not appear hairy .................................................................................................  11
10(2, 9). Dark median serrated abdominal streak, with lighter contours or on light background Mogrus
- Abdomen red with longitudinal black streak contoured by a thin white line, males only ... Philaeus
11(9). Abdomen with light streak on mosaic background but without pair of white spots .... 12
- Abdomen mosaic with contrasting pair of white spots, usually with median streak (absent or indistinct in 
Habrocestum) ............................................................................................................................ 13
12(11). Abdomen elongated and thin, with marginal grey spots, medially light but without contrasting streak,
 male only ..................................................................................................................................  Mendoza
- Abdomen not elongated, with pairs of dark diagonal lines on lighter background (sometimes  yellow or pink)
usually with white marginal line, no stridulatory spines on tubercles beneath lateral eyes  (in part) Evarcha
- Broad but ill-defined light streak along abdomen and cephalothorax, usually broad white areas
 along lower sides of cephalothorax .........................................................................................  Menemerus  
13(11). Abdomen with broad median light longitudinal streak, posteriorly with a pair of lateral spots and a few 
chevrons, extended anteriorly by light thoracic streak, in some forms reaching eyes I; large or medium size spiders 
.....................................................................................................................................................  Plexippus  
- Abdomen with light median streak and a pair of small white spots posteriorly, attached to median light streak; 
male pedipalpal tibia longer than cymbium, with long mane of white hairs, retrolateral cheliceral tooth bifid  
.....................................................................................................................................................  Hasarius  
- Abdomen with a pair of large white spots posteriorly often fused medially, male cymbium dorsally with round spot 
of white scales ............................................................................................................................  Habrocestum
- None of listed character gave satisfactory identification - return  to the key based on genital organs characters.
Copyrights by J. Proszynski. 2002